The airport first opened on September 8, 1923 and its primary purpose at the time was to serve the Army Air Corps and the Massachusetts Air National Guard. During this time of military use it was named Jeffery Field. Later, it would be known as Boston Airport when commercial flights began in 1927 between Boston and New York City. These first passenger flights were handled by Colonial Air Transport.
The City of Boston took full responsibility for the airport in 1929. At this point, improvements began on the airport to include an administration building, paved access roads, and longer runways. It was also at this point where landfill operations were commenced in Boston harbor to increase the total acreage of the airport.
The airport was given its current name in honor of General Edward Lawrence Logan. In 1943, the name was given at the same time of signing a bond issue into law. General Edward Lawrence Logan was a native of Massachusetts who, as a both an officer and enlistee, saw action in the Spanish-American War and in World War I. As a brigadier general, he was in command of reorganizing his wartime unit into the Massachusetts National Guard following World War I.
The airport would continue to grow just as rapidly as air travel grew. By 1959 the airport had four runways and Pan American Airways would begin service to Europe on a daily basis. In the same year, cross-country flights would be initiated by American Airlines to Los Angeles. International travel would continue to grow creating the need to construct a dedicated terminal for such travel in 1961.
One sad point in the history of Logan is that it was one of the airports where terrorists hijacked two airliners that would crash into the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. The hijacked flights were United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 11.
Finally, in 2006, major improvements to the airport were completed under the Logan Modernization Project. This project made improvements in security screening, connection facilities, parking garages, environmental systems, and access roads.